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Amber Ruigrok

Amber Ruigrok

William Binks Autism Neuroscience Research Fellow

Departments and Institutes


Research Interests

Sex differences in brain structure and behaviour in autism spectrum conditions; the influence of sex steroid hormones on brain and behavioural development; and sex differences in brain development.

Key Publications

1. Ruigrok, A.N.V., Salimi-Khorshidi, G., Lai, M-C., Baron-Cohen, S., Lombardo, M.V., Tait, R.J., Suckling, J. “A meta-analysis of sex differences in human brain structure.” Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 39:34 – 50, 2014.

2. Lai, M-C., Lombardo, M.V., Suckling, J., Ruigrok, A.N.V., Chakrabarti, B., Ecker,
C., Deoni, C.S.L., Craig, M.C., Murphy, D.G.M., Bullmore, E.T., MRC AIMS Consortium, Baron-Cohen, S.
“Biological sex affects the neurobiology of autism.” Brain 136(Pt9): 2799 – 2815, 2013.

3. Lai, M-C., Lombardo, M.V., Ruigrok, A.N.V., Chakrabarti, B., Wheelwright, S.J., Auyeung, B., Allison, C., MRC AIMS Consortium, Baron-Cohen, S. “Cognition in males and females with autism: Similarities and differences.” PLoS One 7(10): e47198, 2012.

4. Lai, M-C., Lombardo, M.V., Pasco, G., Ruigrok, A.N.V., Wheelwright, S.J., Sadek, S.A., Chakrabarti, B., MRC AIMS Consortium, Baron-Cohen, S. “A behavioral comparison of male and female adults with high functioning autism spectrum conditions.” PLoS One 6(6): e20835, 2011.